State of Art for Larval Rearing of Grouper  

Zhenhua Ma1,2 , Huayang Guo1,2 , Nan Zhang1,2 , Zemin Bai3
1 South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China
2 Key laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Rescources Exploitation and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculature, Guangzhou, 510300, China
3 School of Applied Science, Temasek Polytechnic, 21 Tampines Avenue 1, 529757, Singapore
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 13   doi: 10.5376/ija.2013.03.0013
Received: 15 Apr., 2013    Accepted: 22 Apr., 2013    Published: 30 May, 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ma et al., 2013, State of Art for Larval Rearing of Grouper, International Journal of Aquaculture, Vol.3, No.13 63-72 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2013. 03.0013)


Groupers belonging to the family of Serranidae, are widely distributed throughout sub-tropical and tropic water area. With increasing marketing demands and reduced natural resource, groupers have been considered have high aquaculture potential in tropical and subtropical waters. However, since the first attempt to culture groupers, significant problem exists in fingerling production, particular with survival rates are low and inconsistent. In this review, we will use the life cycle of grouper larvae as a framework to review internal factors regulating ontogenetic development in fish larvae and environmental factors affecting grouper larvae development. To understand the cause of high larvae mortality in early life history, we will review factors related to the ontogenetic development, and then we will focus on issues of first feeding of grouper larvae in intensive aquaculture. At the end, we will review the management strategies of using live feeds in grouper hatcheries.

Grouper; Larvae culture; Live feeds; Growth and survival rate
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