Impact of Aquaculture on Water Quality in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe  

Beaven Utete1 , Letween Mutasa1 , Nobuhle Ndhlovu2 , Itai Hillary Tendaupenyu2
1 Chinhoyi University of Technology Department of Wildlife and Safari Management, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
2 Lake Kariba Fisheries Research Institute, P. O. Box 75/P. Bag 2075, Kariba, Zimbabwe
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 4   doi: 10.5376/ija.2013.03.0004
Received: 25 Jan., 2013    Accepted: 04 Feb., 2013    Published: 21 Mar., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Utete et al., 2013, Impact of Aquaculture on Water Quality in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, International Journal of Aquaculture, Vol.3, No.4 11-16 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2013. 03.0004)


This study investigated the water quality at the aquaculture effluent discharge points in Lake Kariba. Water samples were collected at three sites designated Site 1 (Crocodile Farm effluent discharge point), Site 2 (Fish Farm effluent discharge point) and Site 3 (Control point) from the month of September 2011 to January, 2012. Physico-chemical variables (temperature, total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, nitrates, ammonia, and ortho-phosphate) were measured. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, pH and conductivity were found to be significantly (ANOVA, p<0.05) high at aquaculture effluentdischarge points compared to the control point. Relative to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Environmental Management Authority of Zimbabwe (EMA-SI) guidelines for aquatic waters, turbidity, nitrates and ammonia at site 1 and site 2 were found to exceed the maximum allowable limit (5NTU), 10 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L respectively while dissolved oxygen was below the minimum allowable limit of 5 mg/L. All other physico-chemical parameters were within the accepted range at all stations. While the physico-chemical results indicated deteriorating water quality at the discharge point due to the effluent inflow, the large water volume in Lake Kariba plays an important factor in diluting aquaculture effluent.

Aquaculture effluent; Discharge points; Water quality; Lake volume; Lake Kariba
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International Journal of Aquaculture
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