Research Article

Determination of Seasonal Occurrence of Camallanus sp. and Ligula intestinalis on Fresh Usipa, Engraulicypris sardella from Selected Mzuzu Markets, Malawi  

Charles Watchipa Mgwede , Orton Msiska
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201, Malawi
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2018, Vol. 8, No. 5   doi: 10.5376/ija.2018.08.0005
Received: 12 Feb., 2018    Accepted: 05 Mar., 2018    Published: 23 Mar., 2018
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Mgwede C.W., and Msiska O., 2018, Determination of seasonal occurrence of Camallanus sp. and Ligula intestinalis on fresh Usipa, Engraulicypris sardella from selected Mzuzu markets, Malawi, International Journal of Aquaculture, 8(5): 29-37 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2018.08.0005)


This study assessed the seasonality of two parasites, Camallanus sp. and Ligula intestinalis on fresh E. sardella from selected Mzuzu markets in Malawi. Samples were collected during the cold, dry and rainy seasons and the determination of the parasites was conducted to quantify by calculation of prevalence rates and mean intensities of the parasites during the three seasons. These parasites were located in gills and the gastrointestinal cavity respectively. No parasites were observed during the cold season. A total of 46 parasites were observed during the dry season and 28 parasites were observed during the rainy season out of two hundred samples per season. The prevalence rates for the cold, dry and rainy seasons were 0%, 21% and 13% respectively and corresponding mean intensities of 0, 1.1 and 1.08 respectively. The study revealed seasonal variations of prevalence rates and the mean intensities of the parasites. The cold season registered the lowest prevalence rate and mean intensity. These findings indicate a strong interaction of parasite with the environment, the host fish and other fish behavioural factors such as feeding and foraging. The findings suggest that the proliferation of some parasites in E. sardella is influenced by ecological dynamics of the habitats as well as the seasonal variations.

Ligula intestinalis; Camallanus sp.; Prevalence rates; Mean intensity; Seasonal variations
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International Journal of Aquaculture
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