Case Study: Diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila Infection Carassiue gibelo Fish in Shatt Al-Arab River, South of Iraq  

Majid Abdul Aziz Bannai
Aquaculture and marine fisheries, marine science center, Basrah University, Iraq
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 20   doi: 10.5376/ija.2013.03.0020
Received: 14 Jun., 2013    Accepted: 24 Jun., 2013    Published: 09 Jul., 2013
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Bannai, 2013, Case Study: Diagnosis of “Aeromonas hydrophila” Infection Carassiuegibelo Fish in Shatt Al-Arab River, South of Iraq, International Journal of Aquaculture, Vol.3, No.20 115-116 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2013. 03.0020)


In this case study of diagnosis Aeromonas hydrophila infected wild fish carp, Carassiuegibelo from Shut Al-Arab River south of Iraq, Revealed that the incidence of Aeromonas hydrophila and cause blood poisoning Aeromonas (MAS). The total number of fish show clinical abnormalities Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated and identified are 20 fish. Samples were collected during the summer season by using net electric fish.

Diagnosis; Aeromonas hydrophila; Shatt Al-Arab River; Carassiue gibelo

All populations of organisms, including aquatic animals is limited partly or wholly in the ecosystem (Real, 1996). The prevalence of the disease in the ecosystem is affected by many environmental factors, including infectious and stressors (Nils Kautsky et al., 2000).

Aeromonas hydrophila and other motile aeromonads are among the most common bacteria in freshwater habitats throughout the world, and these bacteria frequently cause disease among cultured and feral fishes.
Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads are among the most common bacteria in freshwater habitats throughout the world. Genus Aeromonas includes prominantmicrobiota in freshwater reservoirs where they together with other microorganisms act as natural bio-filters and promote self purification of the water body. The course of the disease usually runs in an acute manner.
In natural situations, an infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, fish probably a minor problem. Common disease related stress conditions, Fish experts agree that fish are easily stressed when mishandled, packed, transported under poor conditions. Experimental demonstration shows that fish in poor environments due to unsatisfactory water quality such as high levels of nitrite, low levels of dissolved oxygen, or high levels of carbon dioxide (CO) are more vulnerable to infection by Aeromonas hydrophila.
Bacteria are everywhere, and occurs in most freshwater environments. Can be found in the water column and in the sediment than centimeter (Hazen, 1979). Aeromonads mobile are adapted to environments that have a wide range of conductivity, turbidity, pH, salinity and temperature (Hazen et al., 1978). Optimums temperature may depend on the particular strain is under investigation, but generally range from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (Meyer, 1970).
1 Fish Collecting
And wild populations samples were collected 20 weigh 50 g-80 g and measure 12 cm-25 cm from the shut Al-Arab northern Iraq, using electric net fish during the summer season. And the water temperature was measured at the time of collection using a digital thermometer. Samples directly kept into the containers supplied with aerated river water, and transported to the laboratory in the Department of fisheries aquaculture and marine science centre Basrah University. Fish exposed to clinical and examination according to Austin and Austin (1999). And send a copy of the clinical picture of Dr. Austin brain for identification.
2 Results
Presumptive diagnosis of A. hydrophila can be based on these fish species are affected, and if the past of those fish disease, and clinical signs of the disease. However, the bacteria must be isolated and identified the decomposing to provide a definitive diagnosis.
Clinical Finding study found that the incidence of A. hydrophila infection due to Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS.). A lot of fish show clinical abnormalities of Aeromonas were isolated and identified. Some of the collected fish showed one or more from the following signs according to the stage of disease; darkness in the color of the skin, detachment of the scales, large irregular hemorrhages on the body surface, ulcers on the skin varied from shallow to deep necrotizing ulcers, fin erosions, inflamed vent, exophthalmia, abdominal distension with sero-hemorrhagic fluids exuded from the vent as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Registered under charity number SC000278 Heriot-Watt University is a Scottish charity UK
3 Discussion
The percent of infection in the wild stock during summer. These results are in agreement with those of Eissa et al. (1994) and Company et al. (1999) who reported that, the majority of the infection occurred during the change of water temperature, spawning season. Osborne et al. (1989) found high densities of motile aeromonads within the environment during the mid summer when sedimentary chlorophyll and water temperature were highest. Meyer (1970) stated that most epizootics among warm water fishes in southeastern United States are generally reported in late spring and early summer as the water temperature ranged from 25-35.
4 Recommended Treatment
Oxytetracycline (Terramycin) has been the drug of choice for treating motile aeromonads epticemias in fishes. The drug is approved for use with pond fishes. It is administered in feed at a daily rate of 50 mg/kg to 75 mg/kg of fish for 10 days. Fishmust be withdrawn from treatment for 21 days before they are stocked or eaten. This treatment sometimes produces dramatic results when it is administered for even 2 or 3 days, and isparticularly effective when fish become infected after they have been handled, crowded, or heldunder stress for short periods of time (Meyer, 1964; Meyer and Collar, 1964).
I am grateful to Dr. Brian Austin B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.H.E.A., F.R.S.A.Heriot-Watt University is a Scottish charity Uk ,for identification of species of bacteria and registered under charity number SC000278 Heriot-Watt University and also to MisAmalAlsheraa to help for collected fish.
Austin B., and D. A. Austin, 1999, Third ed. Chapter 2: Characteristics of the diseases, In Bacterial Pathogens: Diseases of Farmed and Wild Fish, Springer-Praxis, Praxis Publishing, Ltd. Chichester, UK., pp.13-15
Company R., A. Sitja-Bobadilla, M. J. Pujalte, E. Garay, P. Alverez-Pellitero, and J. Perez-Sanchez, 1999, Bacterial and parasitic pathogens in cultured common dentex, Dentexdentex L. J. fish diseases, 22: 299-309
Eissa I. A. M., A. F. Badran, M. Moustafa, and H. Fetaih, 1994, Contribution to Motile Aeromonas Septicemia in some cultured and wild freshwater fish, Vet. Med. J., (Giza), 42(1): 63-69
Hazen T. C., 1979, Ecology of Aeromonashydrophila in a South Carolina cooling reservoir.Microbial Ecology, 5: 179-195
Hazen T. C., Fliermans C. B., Hirsch R. P., and Esch G. W., 1978, Prevalence and distributionof Aeromonashydrophila in the USA, Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 36(5): 731-738
Meyer F. P., 1964, Field treatments of Aeromonas liquefaciens infections in golden shiners, Progressive Fish-Culturist, 26: 33-35[33:FTOALI]2.0.CO;2
Meyer F. P., and Collar J. D., 1964, Description and treatment of a Pseudomonas infection inwhite catfish, Applied Microbiology, 12: 201-203, PMid:14170955
Meyer F. P., 1970, Seasonal fluctuations in the incidence of disease on fish farms, in S.F Snieziko, ed. A symposium on disease of fishes and shellfishes, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 5. Bethesda, pp.21-29
Osborne J. A., G. E. Fensch, and J. A. Charba, 1989, The abundance of Aeromonashydrophila L. at lake Harney on the St.jons river with respect to red sore disease in stripped mullet (Mugilcephalus L.), Florida Scientist, 52: 171-176

Real L. A., 1996, Sustainability and ecology of infectious diseases, Bioscience, 46: 88-97

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