Research Article

Nutrient Profile of Commercial Fish Feeds under Different Storage Conditions  

S.G. Solomon , L.O. Tiamiyu , V.T. Okomoda , K. Adaga
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 12   doi: 10.5376/ija.2016.06.0012
Received: 03 Jan., 2016    Accepted: 13 Apr., 2016    Published: 07 Sep., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Solomon S.G., Tiamiyu L.O., Okomoda V.T., and Adaga K., 2016, Nutrient Profile of Commercial Aqua-feeds under Different Storage Conditions, International Journal of Aquaculture, 6(12): 1-11 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2016.06.0012)

This study was conducted to give detail account of nutrient deterioration of fish feed under storage in tropical condition. Three popular commercial catfish diet were used for this study namely Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vitafeed® and were stored under open and air tight condition for six month. Proximate composition, mineral composition, Free fatty acid content and peroxide value where monitored monthly during the storage period while mould count and insect infestation where determined at the end of the experiment. The nutrients analysis reveals significantly reduction in storage under open condition compared to storage in air tight conditions, the levels of reduction was also dependent on the different commercial diet investigated. Mould infestation of the feed were noticeable more in the open condition of storage compared to the airtight condition. Insects’ infestation was also noticed in the open storage condition. The insects species identified on the feed were: Gryllus assimilis, Blatta orientalis, solenopsis, germinate, Delia Platura, Phaenicia sericata, Damistid beetle and Larder beetle.
Aflatoxin proximate composition; Insect infestation; FFA; POV

1 Introduction

The prevailing climatic conditions in the tropical regions of the world (with temperature and relative humidity over 25°C and 70% respectively) accelerate moldy growth and lipid oxidation of stored feed, (Berger, 1989; Coppen, 1989; Van den, 1990; Adaga, 2014). According to Bautista et al., (1992) and Ramezandeh et al., (1999) storage at high temperature result in an increase in both oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity with a loss in feed quality. Studies by Hamilton, (1989), Van Dan et al., (1990) and Ruiz et al., (2000) indicate that fats are intrinsically unstable when subjected to a high temperature above 300C. Under such conditions, fats are hydrolyzed to release ketonic acids, which further undergo auto-oxidation with degeneration of racial products (Hamilton 1989).


Rancidity results in loss of quality and acceptability, causing reduced feed intake in fish, (Galliard, 1989; Sanders, 1989). Similarly, NRC, (1981), reported that feed stored for longer than 90 days at ambient temperature is subjected to the breakdown of oil, and vitamins along with peroxidation of lipid component. According to FAO (2001), environmental factors during storage predispose the feeds to undergo microbial spoilage. Toxins producing fungi are also found in stored feeds, most of them producing aflatoxins, patulins, and trichotecens which are strongly carcinogenic, mutagenic and dangerous. Aflatoxins are chemicals produced by fungi as Aspergilus flavus and A. parasiticus (mould), (Russo and Yanong, 2006).


The occurrence of these microbial strains in fish feed has been reported to depend on the storage conditions of the feed (Zmyslowska, 2000). Manufactured feeds are stored under different storage conditions by commercial fish feed sellers and farmers without respect to the effect of these conditions on the nutrient profiles of the feeds. The general rule for the preservation of feed is to store them in a dry, well-ventilated area that can offer some protection from rapid changes in temperature, (Jantrarotai and Lovell, 1990). In the tropics where climatic conditions are harsh, storage of fish feeds to ensure less nutritional deterioration and shelf life longevity is often a problem, hence, different methods have been developed by different group based on what is best suitable in the various localities (Adaga, 2014). Researches on the nutritional profile of feed under different storage conditions are also scarce since the nutrient profile of a feed determines the growth performance of fish; this study was designed to determine the nutrient level of stored feed using the prevalent method of storage among fish farmers in Benue state Nigeria.


2 Materials and Methods

Eight kilograms of each of Coppens®, Multifeed® and vitalfeed® was purchased from a reputable feed store along the modern market road, Makurdi Nigeria. They were divided into two halves (4kg) and stored in open and airtight conditions for six months. The open condition was done by widely opening the feed packaging from the top and left open to the atmosphere for the period of 6months. The airtight condition was created by open the feed packaging from the top however, it was squished together and tied with a rope to provide a simple airtight condition of storage. The choice of these methods of storage for this study was based on a pre-field survey done on the packaging style of most fish farmers around the state. Samples of the feed were collected one a month for different nutrient analysis. Proximate analysis of feeds was determined using the methods of AOAC, (2000). Parameters measured (in percentage) include moisture, ash, crude fiber, ether extract and crude protein. Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) was determined by the difference between 100% and the other parameters. Organoleptic description of the feeds before, during and after the storage period was done by a team of previously trained assessors using hedonic scales designed for the study (reference).


Peroxide value (POV) and Free Fatty Acid (FFA) analysis were also done according to AOAC, (2000), oils with POV well below 10 mg/kg are considered fresh. While oils with POV between 20-40mg/kg were termed rancid. Mould growth was identified according to the method described by APHA (1998).


3 Results and Discussion

The crude protein content of Coppens® under airtight condition remains fairly constant during a storage period of six months, while that of Multifeed® was reduced a little as the time of storage prolonged (Table 1Table 2; Figure 1). The same trend was observed for Vitafeed® (Table 3Figure 1). This could be as a result of protein aging as postulated by Shyong, (1998); however deviation of the trend of decrease observed in Coppens® may be due to differences in feed ingredient suggesting that the susceptibility of feed to the "protein aging" phenomenon may differ with different feedstuffs. Hossen et al., (2011) reported that changes in the chemical composition and nutritive value of feed may occur during storage. Though the protein content of all commercial feeds stored in open condition reduced as the storage time increased, the marginal decrease recorded in airtight conditions (Figure 1) is an indication that nutrient deterioration may be reduced with proper storage practices. This observation agrees with Jones, (1987)and Lim et al., (2008) who reported that infestation of feed by spoilage microorganisms results in loss of dietary nutritional value owing to loss of amino acids (especially lysine and arginine), dietary lipids, and vitamins.


Figure 1 Monthly changes in percentage crude protein content of Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vitalfeed under airtight and open conditions stored for the period of six months


Table 1 Monthly proximate composition of Coppens® feed stored under airtight and open conditions for the period of six months

Note: Mean in the same row within the same month with different superscript differ significantly (P<0.05)


Table 2 Monthly proximate composition of Multifeed® stored under airtight and open storage conditions for the period of six months.

Note: Mean in the same row within the same month with different superscript differ significantly (P<0.05)


Table 3 Monthly proximate composition of Vitafeed® stored under airtight and open conditions.

Note: Mean in the same row within the same month with different superscript differ significantly (P<0.05)


Lipid content of Coppens® was higher compared to those observed in Multifeed® (Figure 2), however, vitalfeed had the least lipid content both in open and airtight conditions of storage. Ayuba and Iorkohol, (2013) also reported differences in lipid content of Coppens®, Dizengoff, Durante and Adolf calyx fish feeds. Types and kind of feed ingredient used in the feed formulation, as well as feed nutritional specification as determined by the manufacturer, may have led to this variation. The lipid content of Coppens® and vitalfeed reduced as the storage time increased for open storage condition (Figure 2), however, Multifeed® slightly varied but was not much pronounced as the other feeds. These trends could be attributed to lipid oxidation at various degrees based on the susceptibility of the lipid in the feed ingredient to deterioration. According to NRC, (1981), feed stored longer than 90 days (three months) at ambient temperature is subjected to the breakdown of oil, and vitamin along with peroxidation of lipid component. Rancidity resulting from lipid oxidation is the most outstanding deteriorative changes in feed during storage. Feed ingredients containing lipids which are highly poly-unsaturated such as fish meals are susceptible to oxidations (Pezzuto and Park, 2002; Sidhuraju and Backer, 2003). Chan, (1987) reported that poly-unsaturated fats can quickly autoxidize at ambient or sub-ambient temperatures. AIN, (1980) however reported that diets containing fish oil are more susceptible to autoxidation than diets containing other polyunsaturated fats. It is an established fact that different variables are involved in oil shelf-life; processing, storage conditions, light exposure, type of packing material, availability of oxygen and addition of antioxidants do affect the quality and characteristics of fats and lipids containing products (Lawson, 1995; Polvilloet al., 2004) this study as justified the fact that storage affects lipid content of feeds. 


Figure 2 Monthly percentage lipid changes of Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vitalfeed under airtight and open conditions stored for the period of six months


The magnitude of oxidative changes was monitored by the periodical measurement of peroxide value (POV), and free fatty acid. The peroxide value levels increased in all diet groups over the storage period and was higher in Multifeed® while least value was observed in coppen for both storage conditions (Figure 3; Figure 4Figure 5). This could be attributed to storage time and long exposure to air. Esterbauer et al., (1986; 1991), reported that POV of fish oil diets constantly increased with time exposure to air and under normal feeding conditions. Peroxide formation is likely to occur as susceptible poly-unsaturated fatty acids are available in the oil. Increases in POV are catalyzed by free radicals attacks at sites. This might explain the observed higher rate of dietary peroxide formation attained towards the end of the storage. Fritche and Johnson, (1988), reported an extremely rapid autoxidation of diets with added fish oil as measured by peroxide value rapid oxidation (POV). Rasheed et al., (1963), reported a high oxidation in diets containing fish oil. However, the value of free fatty acid (FFA) increased slowly among the feed under airtight and open conditions throughout the storage period (Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8).


Figure 3 Monthly POV changes of Coppens® stored under Airtight and open conditions for the period of six months.


Figure 4 Monthly POV changes of Multifeed® stored under airtight and open conditions for the period of six months.


Figure 5 Monthly POV changes of Vitafeed® stored under airtight and open conditions for the period of six months.


Figure 6 Monthly FFA changes of Coppens® stored under airtight and open conditions for the period of six months


Figure 7 Monthly FFA changes of Multifeed® stored under an airtight and open condition for the period of six months.


Figure 8 Monthly FFA changes of Vitafeed® airtight and Vitafeed® open over the storage period.


The observed notable difference between values of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and iron reported by manufacturers and those determined in the laboratory (Table 4) could be attributed to the length of storage before the experiment started, the storage conditions and environmental factors. This is justified by the observed differences noted with different storage conditions for six months. However, the values are within the recommended ranges for the culture of various fishes (Andrews et al., 1973 reported 1.50% of calcium also for I. punctatus, NRC 1983 recommended 0.50 of phosphorus for catfishes while Gatlin et al., 1982 recommended 0.04% of magnesium also for catfishes). The different commercial fish feed stored in open conditions for the period of six months were observed to have physical deterioration after the third month (Table 5), these changes includes; color change, abit soft text of the feed, mouldy growth, unpleasant smell indicating the presence of rancidity and little insect population (Table 6). This is in line with De Silva et al., (1995) that reported improper flavor and appearance changes during storage also feed lump and less palatability was reported.


Table 4 Laboratory analysis of some nutritional macro elements of feeds stored at the airtight and open condition.


Table 5 Organoleptic Description of Feeds Before and During the Storage Period

Note: Normal = +, Dull = *, Mouldy = + +, Heavy mould = +++, Rancid = + +, Insect Infestation = +*+, Caking Condition = ++.


Table 6 Number of Insects Infestation and percentage occurrence per Kg of the feeds


The aim of feed storage is to reduce the rapidity at which feed deteriorates hence storage never enhances feed quality however proper storage is in an effort to maintain the shelf life of feed. Mold growth in stored feeds has been implicated to reduce nutritional value owing to the loss of dietary lipids, amino acids (especially lysine and arginine) and vitamins by enzymatic digestion (Jones, 1987). Mold infestation was first noticed in vitalfeed under open condition compared to other commercial feed (Table 5Table 7). Thick mold cover on the surface of the feed was first observed in February and increased till April. This could be attributed to higher relative humidity during the period (66.38 – 71.53%) recorded in that month of the year (Table 8). Hence, Feed under open condition had higher chances of mold infestation compared to feed stored in an airtight condition. This is in accordance with Osuji, (1985) who reported that beyond 70% relative humidity mold infestation is set in. This observation is also in accordance with Cockrell et al., (1971); NRC, (1981); New, (1987); Effiong and Eyo, (1997); and Eyo, (2001). The feed under airtight condition had no such problem except for vitalfeed. Vitafeed® became damp and musty with less moldy growth. However, this observation came later than the time of mold infestation recorded for other opened fish feeds. This could be explained by the influence of factors such as the combination of the feed ingredients, the chemical composition, and interaction of the feed, also interaction of the above-mentioned factors may as well be the cause. Moreso the above observation may be explained by the high relative humidity created within the closed chambers of the storage system (Vitalfeed) thereby increasing dampness and moisture content of the feed (Figure 9) which in turn created a conducive environment that leads to mold proliferation. However, the inside of the other feed under airtight condition was noticed to be dry throughout the storage period unlike the Vitafeed®, hence, highlighting the role packaging plays in fish feed preservation. This is in line with the observations of NRC, (1981).


Table 7 Total mold count and mold identified

Note: Means in the same column followed by different superscript differ significantly. (P<0.05)


Table 8 The Rainfall, temperature, and Relative humidity during the storage period



Figure 9 Monthly moisture changes of Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vitalfeed under airtight and open conditions stored for the period of six months.


Seven insects' species were identified to infest the feed, they were; Gryllus assimilisBlatta orientalisSolenopsis germinateDelia pluturaPhenicia sericata, Damistid bettle and Larder beetle (Table 6). The occurrence and development of an insect infestation are dependent on many factors such as the source of insect available, temperature, moisture, air condition of the feed and presence of other organisms, (Chow, 1980). In spite of the insect infestation of the feed, no weight loss was observed among the feed stored under airtight and open conditions throughout the storage period. This could be as a result of less number of insect infestations to the feed. An actively reproducing population of insect can quickly consume a significant amount of feed and deteriorate the physical quality (Pederson, 2000).The observed nutrition changes and pathogenic content of stored feed demonstrated in this need to be taken into consideration when feeds are been stored by farmers for long times, the aftermath effect of feeding fish with such feed need to be investigated to provide information on the performance of the potential effect on fish.



Adaga K., 2014, Nutrient profile of some commercial feeds under different storage conditions and their effect on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus,.Unpublished MSc, thesis department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi Nigeria, pp.125


American Institute of Nutrition (AIN), 1980, Second report of the ad hoc committee on standards for nutritional studies, J. Nutr., 110: 1726


American Public Health Association (APHA), 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 20th Edn., Washington DC., pp.1161


Andrews J. W., Murai T. and Cambell C., 1973, Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on growth, food conversion, bone ash and hematocrit levels of catfish, J. Nutr., 103: 766-771(1973)


AOAC, 2002, 41.1.16 AOAC Official Method 96533 peroxide Value of oils And fats. Official Methods of analysis of AOAC International,17th edition. Craithersberg, MD ADAC International


Ayuba VO. and Iorkohol EK., 2012, Proximate composition of some commercial fish feeds sold in Nigeria, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 8(1): 248-252. DOI: 10.3923/jfas.2013.248.252


Bautista M.N., Subosa P.F. and R.L. Celia, 1992, Effects Lin, C.F., A. Asghar, J.I. Gray, D.J. Buckley, A.M. Booren, of antioxidants on feed quality and growth of R.L. Crackel and C.J. Flegal, 1989. Effects ofPenaeus monodon juvenile. J. Sci. Food Agri., 1: 55- oxidized dietary oil and antioxidant supplementation60. on broiler growth and meat stability. Br. Poult. Sci


Berger K.G., 1989, Practical measures to minimize 30: 855-864.rancidity in processing and storage. In: Rancidity in Minitab Inc., 1998. Minitab Release 12.2. Minitab Inc,Foods (2nd ed.). Eds. Allen, J.C. and Hamilton, R.J. State College, Pa, 16801-3008, USA.Elsevier Applied Science. London and New York


Chan H.W.S., 1987, The mechanism of autoxidation. In: Autoxidation of Unsaturated Lipids (Chan, H.W.S.,)


Chow K.W.C., 1980, Storage Problems of Feedstuff in fish feed technology(13):PP 216-224 Lecture presented at FAO/UNDP Training course in fish Feed Technology held at college of fisheries , University proceeding of First International Symposium on Tropical Tomato, Asia vegetable Research Development Centre, Taiwan.PP. 94-103.Coppen, P.P., 1989.The use of antioxidants. In: FAO/UNDP training course in Fish College ofRancidity in Foods (2nd ed.). Eds. Allen, J. C. and Fisheries, University of Washington, Seattle


Cockerell I., Francis B. and Halliday D., 1971, Changes in the nutritive value of concentrate feedstuffs during storage. Proceedings of Conference of Feed Resources and improvement of Animal feeding methods in the CENTO Region countries, Tropical products Institute, London, pp.181-192


Coppen P.P., 1989, The use of antioxidants. In: Rancidity in Foods (2 ed.). Eds. Allen, J. C. and Hamilton, R.J. Elsevier Applied Science. London and New York


De Silva S.S and Anderson T.A., 1995, Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, Chapman and Hall. London


Effiong B.N. and Eyo A. A., 1997, Control of mould infestation in stored pelleted feed. NIFFR Annual Report, pp.128-134


Esterbauer H., Schaur R.J. and Zollner H., 1991, Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 11,81-128


Esterbnauer H., Benedetti A., Lang J., Fulceri R., Fauler G. and Comporti M., 1986, Studies on the mechanism of formation of 4-hydroxyl-nonenal during microsomal lipids peroxidation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 876: 154-166


Eyo A.A., 2001, Chemical composition and amino acid content of the commonly available feedstuffs used in fish feeds in Nigeria. Fish nutrition and fish feed Tech. (A.A. Eyo ed.). pp.14- 25


FAO, 2001, How should I store my feeds. Infeeds and feeding of fish and shrimp. FAO Coporate document repository. Fisheries and aquaculture Department Rome, Italy


Fritsche K. L. and Johnson P.V., 1988, Rapid Auxidation of fish oil in diets without added antioxidants. J. Nutr. 118: 425 – 426


Galliard T., 1989, Rancidity in cereal products, In: 1989, Effects of prolonged and adverse storage Rancidity in Foods (2nd ed.), Eds. Allen, J. & conditions on levels of cholesterol oxidation


Gatlin D.M., III E.H., Robinson W.E., Poe. and Wilson R.P., 1989, Magnesium requirements of fingerlings channel catfish and signs of magnesium deficiency. J. Nutr. M 112: 1182-1187 (1982)


Hamilton P.B., 1989, The chemistry of rancidity in foods.Sanders, T.A., 1989.Nutritional Aspects of rancidity. In: Rancidity in Foods. (2nd ed.) Eds. Allen, J. and Rancidity in Food. (2nd Ed.) Eds. Allen, J. and Hamilton, R.J. Elsevier Applied Science. London Washington, USA. 9 October-15 December 1978.and New York. http://www.Fao.Org/Docrep/X5738e/X5738eoo


Jantrarotai W. and Lovell R.T., 1990, subchronic toxicity of dietary aflatoxin B1 to Channel catfish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 2:248-251<0255:AASTOC>2.3.CO;2<0248:STODAB>2.3.CO;2<0237:ATOABT>2.3.CO;2


Jones, 1987, Fish Nutrition and Fish feed Technology, Ed by A.A Eyo proceeding of the first National symposium on fish Nutrition and fish feed technology Held at the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), pp.113-120


Lawson H., 1995, Food Oils and Fats: Technology, Utilization and Nutrition, 18 – 115. Chapman & Hall, New York


Lim H.A., W.K.N, Lim S.L. and Ibrahim C.O., 2008, Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus flavus affects its nutritive value I pelleted feed for tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Aquaculture Research. Vol.32 Issue 11:895-905


National Research Council, (NRC), 1981, Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes.National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC.63 pp


National Research Council, (NRC), 1983, Nutrients Requirement of warm water fishes and shell fishes. National Academy Press, New York, pp.2-29


New M. B., 1987, Feeds and feeding of fish and shrimp: a manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for fish and shrimp in aquaculture, FAO Report No. ADCP/REP/87/26. Rome. 275 pp


Osuji F., 1985, Pest of stored cereal grains in outlines of stored products entomology for the tropics, Fourth Dimension publishers, pp.1-20


Pederson J.R, 2000, In R.R Mc Ellhiney, ed, feed manufacturing Technology III, American feed industry Association, Arlington, VA, 2000, pp.380-389


Pezzuto J.M. and Park E.J., 2002, Autoxidation and antioxidants, in Swarbrick J, Boylan JC, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Pharmaceuticals Technology, (vol. 1,2nd ed.) 97-113, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York


Polvillo M., M, Márquez-Ruiz GM. and Dobarganes MC., 2004, Oxidative stability of sunflower oils differing in unsaturation degree during long-term storage at room temperature, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81 (6), 577-583


Ramezanzadeh F.M., Rao R.M., Windhauser M., Cheeke W. and P.R., 1999, Applied Animal Nutrition. Feeds And Prinyawiwatkul, R. Tulley and W.E. Marshall, 1999.Feeding (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. Freshwater Fishes in Nigeria, StockResources Comm., 333PP


Rasheed A. A., Oldfield J. E., Kaufmes J. and. Sinhuber R. O., 1963, Nutritive value of marine oils: menhaden oil at varying oxi dation levels with and without antioxidants in rat diets. J. Nutr. 79: 323^32


Rossu J. R. and Yanong R.P.E., 2006, Moulds in fish feeds and Aflatoxicosis. Fact sheet FA - 95 Service.Institute of Food Agric Science University of Florida


Ruiz J.A., Perez-Vendreli A.M. and Esteve-Garcia E., 2000, Effect of dietary iron and copper on performance and oxidative stability in broiler leg meat. Br. Poult. Sci., 41: 163-167.Sanders, 1989. Similarly


Shyong W.J., Haung CH. and Chen H.C., 1998, Effects of dietary protein concentration on growth and muscle composition of juvenile. Aquaculture, 167:35-42.  Gariepinus (Burchell,1822) fingerlings fed diets containing fish oils and vegetable oils as total replacements, World Journal of Fish and Marine Science, 2(2), 93-98


Siddhuraju P. and Becker K., 2003, Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (M. Oleifera Lam.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2144-2155


Van den Berghe C.H., Ahouangninou P.O. and Deka E.K., 1990, The effect of antioxidant and mold inhibitor on feed quality and the performance of broilers under tropical conditions, Trop. Sci., 30: 5-13


Zmyslowska I., 2000, The effect of storage temperature on the microbiological quality of Fish feeds. Polish J. Env. Stud., 9(3) 223-226

International Journal of Aquaculture
• Volume 6
View Options
. PDF(511KB)
. FPDF(win)
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
. S.G. Solomon
. L.O. Tiamiyu
. V.T. Okomoda
. K. Adaga
Related articles
. Aflatoxin proximate composition
. Insect infestation
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment